Reasons for the high demand for tungsten carbide nozzles within the petrochemical industry
Tungsten carbide is an unmatched material when it comes to usage in the Oil and Gas industries. These industries often have extreme conditions both onshore as well as offshore. Various abrasive liquids, solids, sand along with high temperature and pressure conditions cause a significant amount of wear in all steps of the downstream as well as upstream processes. Parts like valves, choke beans, valve seat, sleeves and nozzles made out of the strong and highly resistant tungsten carbide are hence high in demand. Owing to the same, the demand and usage of tungsten carbide nozzles for the oil industry along with other important products have surged in the last few decades.
How’s the ultra-high pressure nozzle plays an important role in the design of ultra-high pressure bit and gain best effects.
At present, the number of deep well ultra-deep well drilling in the world is gradually increasing. Due to the increase of well depth, the drilling speed is significantly reduced, and the drilling cost of a deep well is less than tens of millions, more than hundreds of millions of yuan, the problem of huge deep well drilling cost will become increasingly prominent.Increasing drilling rate and reducing drilling cost have become a hot and difficult problem for drilling engineering experts in recent years.However, in the current rotary drilling mode, only 5% ~ 20% of mechanical energy is used for rock breaking due to low energy transfer efficiency, which makes the rate of rock-breaking drilling difficult to be satisfactory.Therefore, it is necessary to give full and reasonable play to the potential of existing technologies and mechanical equipment, make full use of hydraulic energy, and improve the rock-breaking and rock-clearing capacity of jet flow at the bottom of well, so as to achieve the purpose of increasing drilling speed and reducing cost.Drilling engineering experts all over the world agree that it is a fundamental way to solve the problem of ultra-deep well drilling speed by using downhole supercharger to implement ultra-high pressure fine jet assisted mechanical rock-breaking drilling, namely ultra-high pressure jet assisted drilling technology.Field experiments conducted by Veenhuizen et al. with uhp downhole pumps show that, for shale, uhp jet assisted rock breaking speed is about 1.45 times that of conventional rock breaking speed, 1.50 times that of granite, and up to 2.0 times that of sandstone .Therefore, it is of great significance to the development of ultra-high pressure drill, which is a direct breaking tool.The placement of ultra-high pressure nozzles plays an important role in the design of ultra-high pressure bit.
*Most Significant Factor
(1) under certain conditions, such as nozzle diameter, injection Angle and spray distance, the higher the jet pressure is, the better the rock-breaking effect will be;
(2) under the condition that nozzle diameter, injection Angle and nozzle moving speed are constant, the optimal spray distance increases with the increase of pressure, reaching 32.5 times of nozzle diameter at 200MPa;
(3) the essence of the nozzle moving speed is to reflect the action time of jet erosion rock. When it is less than 2.9mm/s, it has little impact on the erosion effect of rock.
(4) when the pressure is lower than 150MPa, the jet pressure increases and the rock-breaking volume per unit power increases rapidly; however, when the pressure increases further, the rock-breaking volume per unit power decreases slightly, and the rock-breaking efficiency is the highest at 150MPa.
(5) ultra-high pressure nozzle moves in forward mode, with the best rock-breaking effect and the best injection Angle of 12.50.